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In Focus:

Authors & Subject Experts


Author and Subject Expert 

Economic and Social Rights


Dr. Ramachandran has been closely guiding the making of an exclusive Economic & Social Rights Page on BE THE CLASSROOM SERIES website. 

In her contributions on the website, Dr. Ramachandran has covered the developments at the international, regional and domestic levels. She has closely observed the gaps in compliance with exiting standards on State responsibility and the specific mandates issued to specific states under the monitoring and complaints mechanisms. Herein are a few sub-themes that she writes on, defining the scope of her research on the subject;  
1. The importance of state membership to the existing ESC human rights frameworks, including the ICESCR- Optional Protocol.


  2. The interlinkages between ESC human rights frameworks like ICESCR and other agendas including corruption, climate change & resource scarcity.  


3. The collaborations between treaty bodies and the Outcome Statements on key agendas across treaties.  


4. The visible impact of deliberations and adopted statements by UN treaty bodies on domestic laws while dealing with ESC rights.  


5. The growing use of constitutional processes and mechanisms by courts in order to follow up on orders for enforcement of ESC rights within domestic systems.  


6. The use and application of influential concepts including “minimum core” by the ICESCR Committee and domestic courts to define the nonderogable obligations of states.  


7. The expansion in procedural protections as non-derogable mandates for the state while making and enforcing its laws.  


8. The codification of concepts and standards adopted by the ICESCR Committee in domestic statutes and constitutions.  


9. The collaboration across UN treaty bodies and other groups and mechanisms including UPR and Human Rights Council.


 10. The growing direct involvement of the Committee under ICESCR in the making of national laws, and through enquiries into alleged violations.   

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